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5.6 Notes to the consolidated financial statements

For the financial year ended 31 December 2016

1. General information

Accell Group N.V. (“Accell Group”) in Heerenveen, the Netherlands, is the holding company of a group of legal entities. An overview of the data required pursuant to articles 2:379 and 2:414 of the Netherlands Civil Code is enclosed in note 11. Subsidiaries of the financial statements. Accell Group with its group of companies is internationally active in the design, development, production, marketing and sales of innovative and high-quality bicycles, bicycle parts and accessories.

2. Basis of preparation

A. Statement of compliance

These consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as adopted by the European Union (EU-IFRSs) and with Section 2:362(9) of the Netherlands Civil Code.

The consolidated financial statements were authorized for issue by the Board of Directors on 9 March 2017.

B. Basis of measurement

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for the following items, which are measured on an alternative basis on each reporting date:

  • derivative financial instruments measured at fair value: measured at fair value through other comprehensive income: measurement at fair value;
  • the net defined benefit obligation (asset): measured at the fair value of plan assets, less the present value of the defined benefit obligation.

C. Functional and presentation currency

These consolidated financial statements are presented in euro, which is Accell Group’s functional currency.

D. Use of estimates

In preparing these consolidated financial statements, Accell Group has made judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses. Actual results may differ from these estimates. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized prospectively.

Information about assumptions and estimation uncertainties that have a significant risk of resulting in a material adjustment in the year ending 31 December 2016 is included in the following notes:

  • Note 17 – measurement of defined benefit obligations: key actuarial assumptions;
  • Note 19 – recognition of deferred tax assets: availability of future taxable profit against which tax losses carried forward can be used;
  • Notes 9 and 10 – impairment test: key assumptions underlying recoverable amounts, including the recoverability of development costs;
  • Note 20 – recognition and measurement of provisions: key assumptions about the likelihood and magnitude of an outflow of resources.

Measurement of fair values

A number of Accell Group’s accounting policies and disclosures require the measurement of fair values, for both financial and non-financial assets and liabilities. When measuring the fair value of an asset or a liability, Accell Group uses market observable data as far as possible. Fair values are categorized into different levels in a fair value hierarchy based on the inputs used in the valuation techniques as follows:

  • Level 1: quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
  • Level 2: inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (i.e. as prices) or indirectly (i.e. derived from prices).
  • Level 3: inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs).

If the inputs used to measure the fair value of an asset or a liability might be categorized in different levels of the fair value hierarchy, then the fair value measurement is categorized in its entirety in the same level of the fair value hierarchy as the lowest level input that is significant to the entire measurement. Accell Group recognizes transfers between levels of the fair value hierarchy at the end of the reporting period during which the change has occurred.

Further information about the assumptions made in measuring fair values is included in the following notes:

  • Note 18 – share-based payment arrangements;
  • Note 22 – financial instruments.

E. Changes in accounting policies

Other than the change in accounting policy related to ‘Offsetting of financial assets and financial liabilities’, as described below, there were no changes in accounting policies, effective from 1 January 2016, that materially impact Accell Group.

Offsetting of financial assets and financial liabilities

IAS 32 ‘Financial instruments: Presentation’ prescribes that a financial asset and a financial liability shall be offset and the net amount shall be presented in the statement of financial position when, and only when, an entity (a) currently has the legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and (b) intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

In April 2016, an Agenda Rejection Notice (‘ARN’) was published by the IFRS Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) on balance sheet offsetting of notional cash pooling products. The issue in the ‘ARN’ relates to the question whether certain cash pooling arrangements would meet the requirements for offsetting under IAS 32. IFRS itself is principle-based and does not describe in which manner the intention to settle on a net basis shall be demonstrated. In the ‘ARN’ IFRIC provided for further clarification that the transfer of balances into a netting account should occur at the period end to demonstrate an intention to settle on a net basis.

As a result of the ‘ARN’ Accell Group as of 2016 reports gross the cash balances and bank overdrafts within the notional cash pooling arrangements. Accell Group has the legally enforceable right to offset the balances in the notional cash pooling arrangements, but has not settled all balances at the period end and as result could not demonstrate the intention to settle on a net basis.

Accell Group applies the change in accounting policy retrospectively; the comparative figures have been adjusted. At balance sheet date both cash and bank overdrafts include balances of € 38.4 million (2015: €158.2 million) for which offset arrangements apply, but for which no offsetting is allowed based on the ‘ARN’. Cash, bank overdrafts, total assets and total liabilities as result increase with € 38.4 million in 2016 (2015: € 158.2 million). Accell has settled a significant part of the outstanding balances at period end 2016; a result there are significant smaller balances compared to 2015.

The change in accounting policy results in increased balance sheet totals, but has no impact on Accell Group’s equity or the financial covenants in the financing agreement. For this reason Accell Group qualifies these changes not as material and therefore did not include an additional opening balance sheet of 1 January 2015.

3. Significant accounting policies

Accell Group has consistently applied the following accounting policies to all periods presented in these consolidated financial statements.

Certain comparative amounts in the consolidated balance sheet and income statement have been reclassified or re-represented, either as a result of a change in the intention to settle certain deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities simultaneously (refer to note 19 Deferred taxes) or a change in the classification of certain personnel expenses during the current year (refer to note 2. Personnel expenses and note 4. Other operating expenses). The comparative figures in the information on reportable segments (refer to note 1. Operational segments) are reclassified and re-represented as well due to changes. As of 2016 equity-accounted investees and the related income are allocated to the operational segments. The financing on the other hand is no longer allocated to the operational segments.

A. Basis of consolidation

i. Business combinations

Accell Group accounts for business combinations using the acquisition method when control is transferred to Accell Group. The consideration transferred in the acquisition is generally measured at fair value, as are the identifiable net assets acquired. Any goodwill that arises is tested annually for impairment. Any gain on a bargain purchase is recognized in profit or loss immediately. Transaction costs are expensed as incurred, except if related to the issue of debt or equity securities.

The consideration transferred does not include amounts related to the settlement of pre-existing relationships. Such amounts are generally recognized in profit or loss.

Any contingent consideration payable is measured at fair value at the acquisition date. If an obligation to pay contingent consideration that meets the definition of a financial instrument is classified as equity, then it is not remeasured and settlement is accounted for within equity. Otherwise, other contingent consideration is remeasured at fair value at each reporting date and subsequent changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration are recognized in profit or loss.

ii. Subsidiaries

Subsidiaries are entities controlled by Accell Group. Accell Group controls an entity when it is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity. The financial statements of subsidiaries are included in the consolidated financial statements from the date on which control commences until the date on which control ceases.

iii. Loss of control

When Accell Group loses control over a subsidiary, it derecognizes the assets and liabilities of the subsidiary, and any non-controlling interests and other components of equity. Any resulting gain or loss is recognized in profit or loss. Any interest retained in the former subsidiary is measured at fair value when control is lost.

iv. Interests in equity-accounted investees

Accell Group's interests in equity-accounted investees comprise interests in associates and a joint venture.

Associates are those entities in which Accell Group has significant influence, but not control or joint control, over the financial and operating policies. A joint venture is an arrangement in which Accell Group has joint control, whereby Accell Group has rights to the net assets of the arrangement, rather than rights to its assets and obligations for its liabilities.

Interests in associates and the joint venture are accounted for using the equity method. They are recognized initially at cost, which includes transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, the consolidated financial statements include Accell Group’s share of the profit or loss and OCI of equity-accounted investees, until the date on which significant influence or joint control ceases.

v. Transactions eliminated on consolidation

Intra-group balances and transactions, and any unrealized income and expenses arising from intra-group transactions, are eliminated. Unrealized gains arising from transactions with equity-accounted investees are eliminated against the investment to the extent of Accell Group’s interest in the investee. Unrealized losses are eliminated in the same way as unrealized gains, but only to the extent that there is no evidence of impairment.

B. Revenue

Revenue from the sale of goods is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the customer, recovery of the consideration is probable, the associated costs and possible return of goods can be estimated reliably, there is no continuing management involvement with the goods, and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably. Revenue is measured net of returns, trade discounts and volume rebates.

The timing of the transfer of risks and rewards varies depending on the individual terms of the sales agreement. For sales of bicycles, parts and accessories, usually transfer occurs when the product is delivered to the customer’s warehouse; however, for some international shipments the transfer occurs on loading the goods onto the relevant carrier at the port. Generally, for such products the customer has no right of return.

C. Finance income and finance costs

The Group’s finance income and finance costs include:

  • interest income;
  • interest expense;
  • bank fees;
  • dividend income;
  • the foreign currency gain or loss on financial assets and financial liabilities;
  • the gain on the remeasurement to fair value of any pre-existing interest in an acquiree in a business combination;
  • (reversal of) impairment losses recognized on financial assets (other than trade receivables).

Interest income or expense is recognized using the effective interest method. Dividend income is recognized in profit or loss on the date that Accell Group’s right to receive payment is established.

D. Foreign currency

i. Foreign currency transactions

Transactions in foreign currencies are translated to the respective functional currencies of group companies at exchange rates at the dates of the transactions.

Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rate at the reporting date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that are measured at fair value are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rate when the fair value was determined. Foreign currency differences are generally recognized in profit or loss. Non-monetary items that are measured based on historical cost in a foreign currency are not translated.

However, foreign currency differences arising from the translation of qualifying cash flow hedges to the extent the hedges are effective are recognized in OCI.

ii. Foreign operations

The assets and liabilities of foreign operations, including goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on acquisition, are translated into euro at exchange rates at the reporting date. The income and expenses of foreign operations are translated into euros at the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions.

Foreign currency differences are recognized in OCI and accumulated in the translation reserve, except to the extent that the translation difference is allocated to non-controlling interests.

When a foreign operation is disposed of in its entirety or partially such that control, significant influence or joint control is lost, the cumulative amount in the translation reserve related to that foreign operation is reclassified to profit or loss as part of the gain or loss on disposal. If Accell Group disposes of part of its interest in a subsidiary but retains control, then the relevant proportion of the cumulative amount is reattributed to non-controlling interests. When Accell Group disposes of only part of an associate or joint venture while retaining significant influence or joint control, the relevant proportion of the cumulative amount is reclassified to profit or loss.

If the unwinding of a monetary balance, which is either collectable from or payable to a foreign operation is neither planned nor probable in the foreseeable future, than the foreign currency differences of this monetary balance is considered part of the net investment in the foreign operation. Accordingly these currency differences are included in other comprehensive income and recorded in the translation reserve.

iii. Hedge of a net investment in foreign operation

Accell Group applies no hedge accounting to foreign currency differences arising between the functional currency of the foreign operation and Accell Group’s functional currency (euro).

E. Employee benefits

i. Short-term employee benefits

Short-term employee benefits are expensed as the related service is provided. A liability is recognized for the amount expected to be paid if Accell Group has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee and the obligation can be estimated reliably.

ii. Share-based payment transactions

The grant-date fair value of equity-settled share-based payment awards granted to employees is generally recognized as an expense, with a corresponding increase in equity, over the vesting period of the awards. The amount recognized as an expense is adjusted to reflect the number of awards for which the related service and non-market performance conditions are expected to be met, such that the amount ultimately recognized is based on the number of awards that meet the related service and non-market performance conditions at the vesting date.

iii. Defined contribution plans

Obligations for contributions to defined contribution plans are expensed as the related service is provided. Prepaid contributions are recognized as an asset to the extent that a cash refund or a reduction in future payments is available.

iv. Defined benefit plans

Accell Group’s net obligation in respect of defined benefit plans is calculated separately for each plan by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in the current and prior periods, discounting that amount and deducting the fair value of any plan assets.

The calculation of defined benefit obligations is performed annually by a qualified actuary using the projected unit credit method. When the calculation results in a potential asset for Accell Group, the recognized asset is limited to the present value of economic benefits available in the form of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan. To calculate the present value of economic benefits, consideration is given to any applicable minimum funding requirements.

Remeasurement of the net defined benefit liability, which comprise actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets (excluding interest) and the effect of the asset ceiling (if any, excluding interest), are recognized immediately in OCI. Accell Group determines the net interest expense (income) on the net defined benefit liability (asset) for the period by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation at the beginning of the annual period to the then-net defined benefit liability (asset), taking into account any changes in the net defined benefit liability (asset) during the period as a result of contributions and benefit payments. Net interest expense and other expenses related to defined benefit plans are recognized in profit or loss.

When the benefits of a plan are changed or when a plan is curtailed, the resulting change in benefit that relates to past service or the gain or loss on curtailment is recognized immediately in profit or loss. Accell Group recognizes gains and losses on the settlement of a defined benefit plan when the settlement occurs.

v. Other long-term employee benefits

Accell Group’s net obligation in respect of long-term employee benefits is the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods. That benefit is discounted to determine its present value. Remeasurements are recognized in profit or loss in the period in which they arise.

F. Income tax

Income tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. It is recognized in profit or loss except to the extent that it relates to a business combination, or items recognized directly in equity or in OCI.

i. Current tax

Current tax comprises the expected tax payable or receivable on the taxable income or loss for the year and any adjustment to tax payable or receivable in respect of previous years. The amount of current tax payable or receivable is the best estimate of the tax amount expected to be paid or received that reflects uncertainty related to income taxes, if any. It is measured using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Current tax also includes any tax arising from dividends.

Current tax assets and liabilities are offset only if certain criteria are met.

ii. Deferred tax

Deferred tax is recognized in respect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes. Deferred tax is not recognized for:

  • temporary differences on the initial recognition of assets or liabilities in a transaction that is not a business combination and that affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss;
  • temporary differences related to investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint arrangements to the extent that the Group is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences and it is probable that they will not reverse in the foreseeable future; and
  • taxable temporary differences arising on the initial recognition of goodwill.

Deferred tax assets are recognized for unused tax losses, unused tax credits and deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which they can be used. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realized; such reductions are reversed when the probability of future taxable profits improves.Unrecognized deferred tax assets are reassessed at each reporting date and recognized to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will be available against which they can be used.

Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to be applied to temporary differences when they reverse, using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. The measurement of deferred tax reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which Accell Group expects, at the reporting date, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset only if certain criteria are met.

G. Inventories

Inventories are measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value. The cost of inventories is based on the first-in first-out (fifo) principle. In the case of manufactured inventories and work in progress, cost includes an appropriate share of production overheads based on normal operating capacity.

H. Property, plant and equipment

i. Recognition and measurement

Items of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses. Any gain or loss on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognized in profit or loss.

ii. Depreciation

Depreciation is calculated to write off the cost of items of property, plant and equipment less their estimated residual values using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, and is generally recognized in profit or loss. Land is not depreciated.

The estimated useful lives of property, plant and equipment for current and comparative periods are as follows:

Buildings 40 year        
Plant and equipment 3 - 12 year        

 

Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted if appropriate.

I. Intangible assets and goodwill

i. Recognition and measurement

Goodwill

Goodwill arising on the acquisition of subsidiaries is measured at cost less accumulated impairment losses.

Trademarks

Trademarks, commonly arising on the acquisition of subsidiaries, are measured at cost less accumulated impairment losses. The acquired trademarks are positioned in the middle and upper segments and mostly have a long history and tradition in the local and international markets in which they operate. The trademarks have an indefinite useful life; based on an analysis of all the relevant factors there is no foreseeable limit to the period over which the asset is expected to generate net cash inflows for Accell Group.

Research and development

Expenditure on research activities is recognized in profit or loss as incurred. Development expenditure is capitalized only if the expenditure can be measured reliably, the product or process is technically and commercially feasible, future economic benefits are probable and Accell Group intends to and has sufficient resources to complete development and to use or sell the asset. Otherwise, it is recognized in profit or loss as incurred. Subsequent to initial recognition, development expenditure is measured at cost less accumulated amortization and any accumulated impairment losses.

Other intangible assets

Other intangible assets, including customer relationships, patents and trademarks, that are acquired by Accell Group and have finite useful lives are measured at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses.

ii. Subsequent expenditure

Subsequent expenditure is capitalized only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which it relates. All other expenditure, including expenditure on internally generated goodwill and brands, is recognized in profit or loss as incurred.

iii. Amortization

Amortization is calculated to write off the cost of intangible assets less their estimated residual values using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, and is generally recognized in profit or loss. Goodwill and trademarks are not amortized.

The estimated useful lives for current and comparative periods are as follows:

Customer lists 10 - 20 year        
Licenses 10 year        
Patents 5 year        
Software 3 - 5 year        
Development expenditure 3 - 5 year        

 

Amortization methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted if appropriate.

J. Financial instruments

Accell Group classifies non-derivative financial assets into the following categories: financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, held-to-maturity financial assets and loans and receivables.

Accell Group classifies non-derivative financial liabilities into the following categories: financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss and other financial liabilities.

i. Non-derivative financial assets and financial liabilities – recognition and derecognition

Accell Group initially recognizes loans and receivables and debt securities issued on the date when they are originated. All other financial assets and financial liabilities are initially recognized on the trade date when Accell Group becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

Accell Group derecognizes a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows in a transaction in which substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred, or it neither transfers nor retains substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership and does not retain control over the transferred asset. Any interest in such derecognized financial assets that is created or retained by Accell Group is recognized as a separate asset or liability.

Accell Group derecognizes a financial liability when its contractual obligations are discharged or cancelled, or expire.

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount presented in the statement of financial position when, and only when, Accell Group has a legal right to offset the amounts and intends either to settle them on a net basis or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

ii. Non-derivative financial assets – measurement

Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss

A financial asset is classified as at fair value through profit or loss if it is classified as held for trading or is designated as such on initial recognition. Directly attributable transaction costs are recognized in profit or loss as incurred. Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are measured at fair value and changes therein, which takes into account any dividend income, are recognized in profit or loss.

Held-to-maturity financial assets

These assets are recognized initially at fair value plus any directly attributable transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, they are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.

Loans and receivables

These assets are initially recognized at fair value plus any directly attributable transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, they are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.

iii. Non-derivative financial liabilities – measurement

Non-derivative financial liabilities are initially recognized at fair value less any directly attributable transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, these liabilities are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.

iv. Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting

Accell Group holds derivative financial instruments to hedge its foreign currency and interest rate risk exposures. Derivatives are initially measured at fair value; any directly attributable transaction costs are recognized in profit or loss as incurred. Subsequent to initial recognition, derivatives are measured at fair value, and changes therein are generally recognized in profit or loss.

Cash flow hedges

When a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedging instrument, the effective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognized in OCI and accumulated in the hedging reserve. Any ineffective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognized immediately in profit or loss.

The amount accumulated in equity is retained in OCI and reclassified to profit or loss in the same period or periods during which the hedged forecast cash flows affects profit or loss or the hedged item affects profit or loss. In the event that the hedge results in the inclusion of a non-financial asset or non-financial liability, then the amounts that were included in OCI are transferred to the initial cost of the related asset or liability (IAS 39.98b).

If the forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, or the designation is revoked, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. If the forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, then the amount accumulated in equity is reclassified to profit or loss.

v. Share capital

Ordinary shares

Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of ordinary shares, net of any tax effects, are recognized as a deduction from equity. Income tax relating to transaction costs of an equity transaction are accounted for in accordance with IAS 12.

K. Impairment

i. Non-derivative financial assets

Financial assets not classified as at fair value through profit or loss, including an interest in an equity-accounted investee, are assessed at each reporting date to determine whether there is objective evidence of impairment.

Objective evidence that financial assets are impaired includes:

  • default or delinquency by a debtor;
  • restructuring of an amount due to Accell Group on terms that Accell Group would not consider otherwise;
  • indications that a debtor or issuer will enter bankruptcy;
  • adverse changes in the payment status of borrowers or issuers.

For an investment in an equity security, objective evidence of impairment includes a significant or prolonged decline in its fair value below its cost.

Financial assets measured at amortized cost

Accell Group considers evidence of impairment for these assets at both an individual asset and a collective level. All individually significant assets are individually assessed for impairment. Those found not to be impaired are then collectively assessed for any impairment that has been incurred but not yet individually identified. Assets that are not individually significant are collectively assessed for impairment. Collective assessment is carried out by grouping together assets with similar risk characteristics. In assessing collective impairment, Accell Group uses historical information on the timing of recoveries and the amount of loss incurred, and makes an adjustment if current economic and credit conditions are such that the actual losses are likely to be greater or lesser than suggested by historical trends.

An impairment loss is calculated as the difference between an asset's carrying amount and the present value of the estimated future cash flows discounted at the asset’s original effective interest rate. Losses are recognized in profit or loss and reflected in an allowance account. When Accell Group considers that there are no realistic prospects of recovery of the asset, the relevant amounts are written off. If the amount of impairment loss subsequently decreases and the decrease can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment was recognized, then the previously recognized impairment loss is reversed through profit or loss.

Equity-accounted investees

An impairment loss in respect of an equity-accounted investee is measured by comparing the recoverable amount of the investment with its carrying amount. An impairment loss is recognized in profit or loss, and is reversed if there has been a favorable change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount.

ii. Non-financial assets

At each reporting date, Accell Group reviews the carrying amounts of its non-financial assets (other than biological assets, investment property, inventories and deferred tax assets) to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, then the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated. Goodwill and trademarks are tested annually for impairment.

For impairment testing, assets are grouped together into the smallest group of assets that generates cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or cash generating units. Goodwill arising from a business combination is allocated to (groups of) cash generating units that are expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination.

The recoverable amount of an asset or cash generating unit is the greater of its value in use and its fair value less costs to sell. Value in use is based on the estimated future cash flows, discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset or cash generating unit.

An impairment loss is recognized if the carrying amount of an asset or cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount.

Impairment losses are recognized in profit or loss. They are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the cash generating unit, and then to reduce the carrying amounts of the other assets in the cash generating unit on a pro rata basis.

An impairment loss in respect of goodwill is not reversed. For other assets, an impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortization, if no impairment loss had been recognized.

L. Provisions

Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. The unwinding of the discount is recognized as finance cost.

4. New and revised standards not yet adopted

A number of new standards are mandatorily effective for accounting periods beginning after 1 January 2016 and early adoption is allowed. In respect of these consolidated financial statements Accell Group decided not to opt for early adoption for the following standards:

  • IFRS 9 Financial Instruments (effective from the year ending 31 December 2018);
  • IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (effective from the year ending 31 December 2018);
  • IFRS 16 Leases (effective from the year ending 31 December 2019).

The new standards IFRS 9 ‘Financial Instruments’ and IFRS 15 ‘Revenue from Contracts with Customers’ are expected to have no material impact on the valuation and classification of assets and liabilities of Accell Group nor on its income statement or cash flows. IFRS 16 ‘Leases’, replacing IAS 17 ‘Leases’, will primarily affect the accounting of leases, and will result in the recognition of almost all leases on the balance sheet.